What are the common errors encountered when using Headless Chromium and how can I solve them?

When using Headless Chromium for web scraping or automated testing, you might encounter several common errors. Below are some of these errors, along with potential solutions:

1. Chromium Won't Start

Error Messages: - Failed to launch the browser process! - No usable sandbox!

Solutions: - Ensure that all dependencies for running Chromium are installed on your system. - If you're running Chromium in a Docker container, make sure to configure it properly with the necessary flags. - You might need to run Chromium with the --no-sandbox flag if you're in a restricted environment (although be aware of the security implications).

2. Timeout Errors

Error Messages: - TimeoutError: Navigation Timeout Exceeded: 30000ms exceeded - TimeoutError: Wait for selector timed out

Solutions: - Increase the timeout setting in your code to give pages more time to load. - Verify that the page you are trying to load or the element you're waiting for does exist and is not being loaded dynamically after your timeout period.

3. Element Not Found

Error Messages: - Error: No node found for selector: #elementId

Solutions: - Ensure the selector used is correct and the element exists. - Wait for the element to be present before trying to interact with it, using functions like waitForSelector().

4. Navigation Errors


Solutions: - Check the URL you're trying to navigate to; it might be incorrect or the server may be down. - Ensure your network connection is stable and that the Chromium process has network access.

5. SSL/TLS Certificate Errors

Error Messages: - net::ERR_CERT_AUTHORITY_INVALID - Your connection is not private

Solutions: - Use the --ignore-certificate-errors flag to bypass SSL certificate validation (be aware of the security risks). - Ensure that the system's date and time settings are accurate.

6. Resource Load Failure

Error Messages: - Failed to load resource: net::ERR_FAILED

Solutions: - Check the network conditions and the resource URL. - Ensure that the server hosting the resource is up and running.

7. Permission Denied Errors

Error Messages: - Error: EACCES: permission denied, open '.../file.txt'

Solutions: - Check the file and directory permissions. - Ensure that the user running Chromium has the necessary permissions.

8. GPU-Related Errors

Error Messages: - GL error

Solutions: - Run Chromium with the --disable-gpu flag to disable GPU hardware acceleration.

Example: Running Headless Chromium in Node.js with Puppeteer

const puppeteer = require('puppeteer');

async function run() {
    let browser;
    try {
        // Launch headless Chromium
        browser = await puppeteer.launch({
            args: ['--no-sandbox', '--disable-setuid-sandbox', '--ignore-certificate-errors'],
            headless: true
        const page = await browser.newPage();

        // Set navigation timeout
        await page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(60000);

        // Navigate to a URL
        await page.goto('https://example.com', { waitUntil: 'networkidle0' });

        // Perform actions such as scraping or interacting with the page
        // ...

    } catch (error) {
        console.error('An error occurred:', error.message);
    } finally {
        if (browser) {
            await browser.close();


Example: Running Headless Chromium in Python with Selenium

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options import Options
from selenium.webdriver.chrome.service import Service
from selenium.common.exceptions import TimeoutException
from webdriver_manager.chrome import ChromeDriverManager

options = Options()

service = Service(ChromeDriverManager().install())
driver = webdriver.Chrome(service=service, options=options)


    # Perform actions such as scraping or interacting with the page
    # ...

except TimeoutException:
    print('The page took too long to load!')

except Exception as e:
    print(f'An error occurred: {e}')


Make sure to handle exceptions and edge cases in your code to deal with these errors gracefully. Additionally, always respect the terms of service of the websites you're interacting with and ensure you're not violating any usage policies with your scraping or automation activities.

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